Summer Seminar: Chronology, Bibliography, Information
1174? Aeneas leads his people from burning ruins of Troy
753 Romulus and Remus found Rome
509 Roman Republic founded after expulsion of Tarquins
451 Decemviri draw up Tables of laws
390 Celtic Gauls sack Rome and receive tribute
264 1st Punic War begins
216Hannibal defeats Varro and Aemilius Paulus at Cannae
201 Scipio defeats Hannibal at Zama, ends 2nd Punic War
146 Destruction of Corinth; Fall of Carthage
103-02 Marius defeats Cimbri & Teutones
90 Italian allies revolt from Rome
83 Sulla made dictator
63 Cicero as consul puts down conspiracy of Catiline
59 Consulship of “Julius and Caesar”
49Caesar crosses the Rubicon with army, near Ravenna
44 Julius Caesar assassinated
42 Octavian, Antony, Lepidus form 2nd Triumvirate;
31 Battle of Actium, Octavian (Augustus) sole ruler
14 Augustus dies, succeeded by Tiberius
96- “Five Good Emperors”: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian,
161 Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius
193 Septimius Severus militarizes Empire
249 Decius becomes emperor and reignites Christian persecutions
257 Valerian (260 captured and enslaved by Sapor, King of Persia
270-75 Aurelian restores empire, builds wall around Rome
293 Diocletian (284-305) creates tetrarchy
313 Edict of Milan tolerating Christians
324 Constantine (306-37) become sole emperor
360-63 Julian tries to restore paganism
364-75 Valentinian emperor
368 Valens defeated and killed by Goths at Adrianople
379-95 Theodosius rules East and West
395 Honorius in West, Arcadius in East
402/2 Honorius moves to Ravenna
408 Stilicho “the Vandal” murdered
410 Alaric and Visigoths sack Rome
425-55 Valentinian III
454 Aëtius murdered by Valentinian
455 Genseric and Vandals sack Rome
455-56 Avitus Marcian (450-57)
457-61 Majorian Pope Leo (457-74)
461-65 Libius Severus
472 Olybrius Zeno (474-91)
475-76 Romulus Augustulus
476 Odovacer displaces Romulus Augustulus
493-526 Theodoric, King of Goths in Italy
527-65 Justinian restores Empire
523 Boethius arrested
554Justinian issues Pragmatic Sanction
565 Lombards invade Italy; Venantius Fortunatus leaves
590-604 Gregory I Pope
610-41 Heraclius Emperor of East
666 Constant II makes Ravenna archbishopric independent
756 Pepin the Short defeats Lombards
800 Charlemagne crowned Emperor in Rome
962 Otto I crowned Emperor in Rome
998 St. Peter Damian born in Ravenna
1002 Otto III dies on third attempt to reenter Rome
1220 Friederich II Emperor
1321 Dante buried in Ravenna
1347 Cola di Rienzo proclaimed tribune of Rome
1806 Holy Roman Empire dissolved
1936 Mussolini proclaims Second Roman Empire
By Agathias Scholasticus, Historian, poet, anthologist in age of Justinian
On An Image of the Archangel
Greatly daring was the wax that formed the image of the invisible Prince of the angels, bodiless in the essence of his form. But yet it is not without Grace; for a man looking at the image directs his mind to a higher contemplation. His veneration is no longer confused, but the image imprinted upon himself he fears as if here wre present. The eyes stir up the depths of the Spirit and Art can convey by colours the prayers of the soul. (I.340)
On the angels and shepherds
One dance one song for men and angels, for man and God are become one. (I.39)
All night long I make my complaint, and when dawn comes to give me a little rest, the swallows twitter and move me again to tears, chasing sweet slumber away. My eyes are kept closed but again Rodanthes stirs the worries in my breast. Hush, you envious chatterboxes. It was not I who cut the tongue of Philomela [who became nightengale] Go weep for lost Itylus in the hills and sit and weep in the nest of the hoopoe in the mountains that I may sleep for a bit. Perhaps some dream will come and wrap Rodanthe’s arms around me.
She, who but late in beauty's flower was seen,
Proud of her auburn curls and noble mien--
Who froze my hopes and triumphed in my fears,
Now sheds her graces in the waste of years.
Changed to unlovely is that breast of snow,
And dimmed her eye, and wrinkled is her brow;
And querulous the voice by time repressed,
Whose artless music stole me from my rest.
Age gives redress to love; and silvery hair
And earlier wrinkles brand the haughty fair.
Poems on Troy
Where are those walls of thine, o city, where thy temples full of treasure, where the heads of the oxen thou wert wont to slay? Where are Aphrodite’s casket of ointment and her mantle all of gold? Where is the image of thy own Athena? Thou hast been robbed of all by war and the decay of ages, and the strong hand of fate, which reversed thy fortunes. So far did bitter envy subdue thee; but thy name and glory she cannot hide. (IX.153)
If thou art a native of Sparta, strannger, mock me not; for I am not the only one that fortune hath used thus. But if thou are from Asia, mourn me not; for every city now bows beneath the Trojan sceptre of the house of Aeneas. If the envious sword of thy enemies hath emptied the temples of my gods, and my walls and my streets, yet am I again a queen, and do thou, undaunted Rome, my child, set on the Greeks the yoke of thy just rule.
Not such your burden, happy youths, as ours--
Poor women-children nurtured daintily--
For ye have comrades when ill-fortune lours,
To hearten you with talk and company;
And ye have games for solace, and may roam
Along the streets and see the painters' shows.
But woe betide us if we stir from home--
And there our thoughts are dull enough, God knows!
Three Partridge Poems
My partridge, wand'rer from the hills forlorn,
Thy house, light-woven of the willow-bough
No more, thou patient one, shall know thee now;
And in the radiance of the bright-eyed morn
Shalt stretch and stir thy sun-kissed wings no more.
A cat struck off thy head--but all the rest
From out the glutton's envious grasp I tore!
Now may the earth lie heavy--so 'twere best--
Upon thee, and not lightly, so that she
May ne'er drag forth these poor remains of thee.
O cat in semblance, but in heart akin
To canine raveners, whose ways are sin;
Still at my hearth a guest thou dar'st to be?
Unwhipt of Justice, hast no dread of me?
Or deem'st the sly allurements shall avail
Of purring throat and undulating tail?
No! As to pacify Patroclus dead
Twelve Trojans by Pelides' sentence bled,
So shall thy blood appease the feathery shade,
And for one guiltless life shall nine be paid.
Response by Damocharis, Pupil of Agathias
Wickedest of cats, rival of the man-eating pack; thou art one of Actaeon's hounds. By eating the partridge of Agathias thy mastei", thou hurtest him no less than if thou hadst feasted on himself. Thy heart is set now on partridges, but the mice meanhile are dancing, running off with thy dainties. (VII.206)